Shivaji Maharaj : History of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj In English

Birth: 19 February 1630
Death: 3 April 1680

Everyone knows about Srimanta Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, one of the heroic sons of India. Many people call him the Hindu heart emperor, while some people call him Maratha pride, while he was the great general of the Indian Republic. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was born on 19 February 1630 in a Maratha family. Some people state his birth in 1627. His full name was Shivaji Shahaji Bhonsle.

Shivaji Maharaj was not Anti-Muslim:

Shivaji Maharaj has been accused of being anti-Muslim, but it is not true that his army not only had many Muslim heroes and fighters, but also many people like Muslim Sardars and Subedars. In fact, the whole struggle of Shivaji Maharaj was against the bigotry and arrogance which was maintained by rulers like Aurangzeb and those who grew up under his shadow.

In the summer of 1674, Shivaji Maharaj pompously sat on the throne and laid the foundation of independent sovereignty. He freed the overbearing Hindu masses. Although the Christian and Muslim rulers used to force their votes on the majority of the people, they would do extra, while in Shivaji Maharaj’s rule the places of worship of both these sects were not only protected but also the fear-free atmosphere for the converted Muslims and Christians. got ready. Shivaji Maharaj ruled for six years through his council of eight ministers. Many Muslims were also involved in his administrative service.

The Making of Religious Rites:

His childhood was spent under the guidance of his mother Jijau. Mother Jijabai, despite being religious in nature, was a heroic woman in virtue and behavior. For this reason, he raised child Shiva and heard bright stories of Ramayana, Mahabharata and other Indian spirits. Under the patronage of Dada Konadev, he was also proficient in all types of contemporary warfare.Religious education was also imparted to religion, culture and politics. In that era, ShivajiMaharaj became a full-fledged nationalist, kartaviparayana and hard-working warrior by coming in contact with the supreme saint Ramdev.

In childhood, he learned to win the fort in sports: In childhood, Shivaji Maharaj used to gather the children of his age to become their leader and play the game of war and win the fort. As soon as he was in his youth, his game became a real deed enemy and attacked the enemies and started winning their fortresses etc. As soon as Shivaji Maharaj asserted his authority over the forts like Purandar and Toran, his name and deeds raged all over the south, the news reaching Agra and Delhi like fire.The tyrannical Turks, Yavans and all their rulers were worried about fearing hearing their name.

Wife and son of Shivaji Maharaj:

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was married on 14 May 1640 with Saibai Nimbalkar at Lal Mahal, Puna. His son’s name was Sambhaji. Sambhaji (May 14, 1657 – died: March 11, 1689) was Shivaji Maharaj’s eldest son and successor, who ruled from 1680 to 1689 AD. Shambhuji lacked his father’s diligence and determination. Sambhaji’s wife’s name was Yesubai. His son and successor was Rajaram.

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Child Literature of Shivaji Maharaj:

Sambhaji is considered the world’s first child literateur. By the age of 14, Sambhaji was the first child literateur in the world to write texts like Budhbhushanam (Sanskrit), Nayikabheda, Satasatak, Nakhshikh (Hindi) etc. They were dominated by Marathi, Hindi, Persian, Sanskrit, English, Kannada etc. languages. The speed with which he fired the pen, he also used the sword. Shivaji Maharaj’s had many wives and two sons, the last years of his life were spent in trouble due to the piety of his eldest son.

This son of his had once joined the Mughals and was brought back with great difficulty. The anxiety of protecting the empire from enemies amidst domestic quarrels and mutual disharmony of its ministers soon brought Shivaji Maharaj to the brink of death. Shivaji Maharaj died on April 3 in his capital Pahari Durg Rajgarh after a brief illness in 1680.

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When he wanted to kill Shivaji Maharaj by deception:

Shivaji maharaj and afjal khan
Credit : Dinik Bhaskar

Bijapur ruler Adilshah, who was terrorized by Shivaji Maharaj’s rising glory, arrested Shivaji Maharaj’s father Shahaji when he could not take Shivaji captive. On discovering this, Shivaji became enraged. He raided his policy and courage, and soon liberated his father from this captivity.

Then the ruler of Bijapur sent Shivaji Maharaj commander Afzal Khan by ordering Shivaji Maharaj to get him alive or dead. He created a false drama of brotherhood and reconciliation and wanted to kill Shivaji Maharaj with his arms in his arms, but he himself was killed due to a cloak hidden in the hands of the sensible Shivaji Maharaj. Due to this, his forces found his commander dead and escaped from there by pressing the tail.

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Confronted by the Mughals :

Sivaji maharaj and mughals war

Worried over the increasing power of Shivaji Maharaj, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb ordered his Subedar appointed in the south to mount them. But Subedar had to face his mouth. During the fight with Shivaji, he lost his son and himself cut his fingers. He had to leave the field and run away. After this incident, Aurangzeb sent an army of about 100,000 soldiers under the leadership of his most influential commander, Mirza Raja Jaisingh.

In order to crush Shivaji Maharaj, King Jai Singh made a treaty with the Sultan of Bijapur and took possession of the fort of ‘Vrajgarh’ on 24 April 1665, in the first phase of his plan to empower Purandar’s fort.

While protecting the fort of Purandar, Shivaji Maharaj’s very brave general ‘Murarji Baji’ was killed. Seeing himself unable to save Purandar’s fort, Shivaji offered a treaty to Maharaja Jai ​​Singh. The two leaders agreed to the terms of the treaty and on 22 June 1665, the ‘Treaty of Purandar’ was concluded.

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Boundary of Shivaji Maharaj’s kingdom:

Torna Fort

The eastern boundary of Shivaji toured Baghna in the north and then covered most of the entire Satara and Kolhapur district with an indefinite boundary line running between Nashik and Poona districts towards the south. was. The regions of western Karnataka were later incorporated. This region of Swaraj was divided into three main parts: –

1. The area from Poona to Salhar, the region of Konkan, which included North Konkan, was under the control of Peshwa Moropant Pingale.

2. The area of ​​southern Konkan up to northern Kanara was under Annaji Datas.

3.The districts of the southern country, which ranged from Satara to Dharwad and Kofal, came under the South Eastern region and were under the control of Dattaji Pant. These three subas were again divided into parganas and talukas. More flock came under the paraganas.

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Shivaji Maharaj army:

Shivaji Maharaj formed a permanent army of his own. At the time of Shivaji Maharaj death, his army consisted of 30-40 thousand regular and permanently appointed cavalry, one lakh pradhanis and 1260 elephants. Exact information regarding their artillery is not available.

The cavalry was divided into two categories: – Bargir and cavalry were the soldiers who were given horses and weapons from the state. The smallest unit of the cavalry consisted of 25 men, with a sergeant. There was a jumla of five havildars. On top of which there was a jumaldar. Ten jumladars used to have a thousand and a pajajari was above five thousand. He used to come under Sarnobat. For every 25 troops a sailor and a recluse were given from the state.
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Forts of Shivaji Maharaj:

Forts were typical features of Maratha military system. According to the narrators, Shivaji Maharaj had 250 forts. They used to spend a large amount on repairs. Shivaji Maharaj captured many fortifications, one of which was the Sinhagad fort, which he sent to Tanaji to win. While winning this fort, Tanaji got heroism. – Garh Ala Pan Singh Galla (we won the fort but Singh left us).Forts like the Chakan, Sinhagad and Purandar in Raigad (1646) also came under his authority under the state boundaries of the Sultan of Bijapur.
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Shivaji Maharaj’s visit to Agra:

Having received complete assurance of his safety, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj agreed to meet Aurangzeb at the court of Agra.He appeared in the Mughal court on May 9, 1666 AD with his son Shambhaji and 4000 Maratha soldiers, but not receiving proper respect from Aurangzeb, Shivaji Maharaj called Aurangzeb as ‘treacherous’ in the filled court, which resulted in Aurangzeb and Shivaji Maharaj His son was imprisoned in ‘Jaipur Bhavan’. From there Shivaji Maharaj escaped by hiding in a fruit basket on August 13, 1666 AD and reached Raigad on September 22, 1666 AD.

Innovator of guerrilla warfare:

It is said that Chhatrapati Shivaji started guerrilla warfare for the first time in India. Inspired by his war policy, the Vietnamese won the forest from America. The mention of this war is found in the ‘Shiva Sutra’ composed in that period. Gorilla War A type of guerrilla warfare. Broadly guerrilla wars are fought by troops of paramilitary or irregular troops attacking the enemy’s rear or side.
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Samarth Ramdas:

The name of Guru Ramdasji of Shivaji Maharaj, the founder of ‘Hindu Pad Padshahi’, is well-known in the saints and learned society of India. He also composed a book called ‘Dasabodh’, which is in Marathi language. From Kashmir to Kanyakumari all over India, he tried to prepare the people for the establishment of self-government by establishing 1100 monasteries and akhadas. He is credited with the establishment of the akhadas, hence he was considered the incarnation of Lord Hanuman, as he was an ardent devotee of Hanuman.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj used to do something only after taking inspiration from his guru. Samarth Ramdasji had a great contribution in making Chhatrapati Maharaja Shivaji the ‘Great Shivaji Maharaj’.
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Worshipers of Tulja Bhavani:

Tuljapur is located in Osmanabad district of Maharashtra. A place where Tulja Bhavani, the Kuldevi mother of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, is established, which is still prevalent as Kuldevi of many residents of Maharashtra and other states. Veer Srimanth is Tulja Bhavani, the Kuldevi mother of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Shivaji the Great used to worship him only. It is believed that Shivaji herself appeared and was given a sword by the Mother Goddess. Currently this sword is kept in the Museum of London.

Due to prolonged illness, in 1680, Veer Chhatrapati Shivaji died and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. Gau-Brahmin Pratipalak, Yavana-Parpadaka, Adult Pratap Purandhar, Kshatriya Kulavatansh, Rajadhiraj, Maharaj, Yogiraj, Sri Sri Sri Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s Jai … Jai Bhavani. Jai Shivaji

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