The census is conducted every ten years by the Central Government with the cooperation of the states and it provides comprehensive information about the population. The census taken in 2011 is the 15th in the series and the Maharashtra population of 11.24 crore and the proportion of women in it is 48.1%. The decade-long growth rate of the Maharashtra population has decreased by 6.7% points during the period 2001 – 2011 and has decreased by 3.8% at the national level. This is a general decline in the tens of years of population growth in the states.
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Population is a tool of wealth
Population is a natural resource. The quality of the population depends on efficiency, literacy, intelligence. The progress of industries, agriculture, trade, mining, protection and trade in any country depends on the quality of the population there. The population gains manpower to protect the country
The distribution of water, land, forests, minerals and animal resources etc. in Maharashtra is very uneven. The importance of these resources is achieved only by human beings. Maharashtra ranks second in India in terms of population. Etc. S According to the 2011 census, the population of Maharashtra is about 11, 23, 72, 972. It comprises one 51.9% males and 48. 1% females. 9. 29% of India’s total population lives in Maharashtra.
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On May 1, 1960, the site of the state of Maharashtra was created. At that time, the population of Maharashtra was about 4 crore. In the last 50 years, the development of industries, trade, transport, tourism, agriculture brought stability to life. A large number of people migrated to Maharashtra due to employment generation. As a result, the population has steadily increased.
Due to poverty, illiteracy, inadequate promotion of family planning, the birth rate is high while death rate has increased due to reduction in mortality due to medical facilities, food supply, control of maladies etc. Maharashtra’s population growth rate is lower than India’s population growth. From 1961 to 1971, the population growth rate of Maharashtra was 27.45%. India’s was 24.8%. From 1981 to 1991, the population growth rate of Maharashtra was 25.73%. At this time, India’s population growth rate was 23. 85%.
From 2001 to 2011, the population growth rate of Maharashtra is 15.99%. Thane district has the highest percentage of 35.94%. Mumbai has the lowest population growth rate (-) 7.57%. This rate is negative for the first time in Mumbai, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts.
Factors affecting Maharashtra population distribution
The distribution of population is uneven in Maharashtra. Konkan, Western Maharashtra has a large population and Aurangabad and Nagpur regions are sparsely populated. Pune district has the highest population (9.84%) and Sindhudurg (0.08%) district has the lowest population. Natural economic and social factors mainly affect the distribution of population.
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1) Natural factors
South-North Sahyadri Mountains are spread in the western part of Maharashtra. The Sahyadri Mountains and the hills passing through it, as well as the high-lying terrain and dense forests in Konkan, as well as the districts of eastern Maharashtra, are more populated with less population. In the eastern part of Sahyadri, on the Maharashtra plateau, the population is dense due to favorable climate and fertile soil in rivers.
2) Financial factors
Mumbai, Pune, Kolhapur – Ichalkaranji, Aurangabad – Jalna and Nagpur divisions The population of the region is dense due to the development of transport, industries and traders. Due to the development of agriculture due to irrigation facilities in western Maharashtra as well as the availability of different minerals in Nagpur, Wardha and Amravati districts of eastern Maharashtra, there is more population.
The sex ratio, age structure, literacy, occupation, rural-urban population is determined by population composition. The census shows the population composition available. This information can be used for the current and future planning of the population.
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A. Age Structure
The population can be divided by age group. Generally considered to be 0- to 14-year-olds and older than 60-year-olds, it is considered to be efficient 15- to 59-year-olds. The age structure provides information about the labor force available in the state and the dependency of the population, and it is necessary to know the age structure of the population in order to provide planning and various facilities.
Generally, factors such as birth rate, mortality, migration, etc. affect the age structure. C. According to the 2001 census, the proportion of people working was 42% while those who did not work were 58%. Due to this, the maharastra population in our state is low. It also has a ratio of 50% of children and 8% of the elderly.
According to Census 2011, about 20% of the Maharashtra population is in the adolescent group (age 10 to 19 years) and the proportion of the youth group (age 15 to 24) is the same.
Nandurbar district has the highest adolescent population (23%) and Mumbai city has the lowest (16.1%).
Gadchiroli district has the highest population (20.5%) and Sindhudurg is the lowest (16.5%).
According to Census 2011, about 9.9% of the Maharashtra population is in the age group of 60 years and above, which is 8.7% in 2001.
Nationally, the ratio is 7.4% and 8.6% for 2001 and 2011 respectively. There are about 5.12 lakh one-member households in the age group of 60 years and above, while nationally, the number of such households is 49. 76 lakh.
In the rural areas of the state as well as nationally, there is a large number of single family members of persons aged 60 years and above.
B. Literacy Rate
Literacy is one of the hallmarks of an advanced society. In Maharashtra, 83% of the population is literate and female literacy is 67.5% and male literacy is 80.2%, whereas in Mumbai and Mumbai suburbs, male literacy is 87%. Because this is a completely civilian division. Sindhudurg district has the highest literacy rate. The literacy rate in the districts of western Maharashtra is equal to the average literacy rate of Maharashtra whereas in Central Maharashtra and East Maharashtra regions it is lower. Chandrapur, Gadchiroli and Nandurbar districts have high literacy rates due to the high number of tribal tribes.
The literacy rate in the state has increased from 76.9% in 2001 to 82.3% in 2011. There is an increase (8.9%) in female literacy rates for the period. This is higher than the male literacy rate (2.4%). Variation in male and female literacy rates has decreased from 18.9% in 2001 to 12.5% in 2011. The literacy rate in rural and urban areas of the state is 77% and 88.7% respectively. Rural-urban variations in literacy rates also decreased from 15.1% in 2001 to 11.7% in 2011.
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C. Sex Ratio
The number of women in a population can be expressed in terms of sex ratio per thousand men. The sex ratio shows the social status of the population. In a population where women and men have the same status, the proportion is closer to a thousand. In Maharashtra, the number of women is lower than that of men.
In the last 10 years, the sex ratio in Maharashtra has increased from 992 to 929. The highest sex ratio in Maharashtra is in Ratnagiri district (1122). Because the migration from men to business is high, the lowest sex ratio is in Mumbai city (838) district. Mumbai has a higher migration of men from other states to business.
The sex ratio of the entire population is determined as well as the child sex ratio was recently calculated for the age group 0 to 6. It is used to estimate and predict future population as well as it is considered as a social norm of population. The sex ratio in this age group is 894 in Maharashtra. Gadchiroli (961) has the highest child sex ratio of all the states. Also, the lowest bowling ratio is in Beed (807) district.
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The ratio of child sex ratio in the state has declined from 913 in 2001 to 894 in 2011. In Beed district, the lowest percentage was 807 in 2011 and a major decline of 86 points was observed from 2001 to 2011. The ratio of child sex ratio has improved slightly in Kolhapur (863), Satara (895), Sangli (867) and Chandrapur (953) districts from 2001 to 2011.
D. Third gender group
This is the first census included in the 2011 census of the third gender group. This group includes individuals who are interested in enrolling in other groups, including the shepherd population. These have also been included. As per census 2011, about 4.88 lakh persons were registered in the national level, of which 8.4% are in the state. The work participation rate of this group is 38 in the state and 34 at the national level.
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E. Population Density
The area and the total population of a region can be estimated by the number of people living per square kilometer. This ratio is called population density. The total area of Maharashtra is 3,07,713 square kilometers and the population is 11, 23, 72, 972, which is why the average density of the state is 365 people.
Density distribution of Maharashtra population
1. High density areas: (population less than 150)
The population density in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra is very rare. Forest area is high in this district and there is a high proportion of tribal people. Due to lack of development of agriculture, transport and industries, population density in this district is very high.
2. Rare density regions: (151 to 300 population)
In the eastern part of the Sahyadri Mountains in western Maharashtra, a region of southwest rainfall is found. Therefore, rare populations are found in Dhule, Ahmednagar and Beed districts. Due to the hilly and forested regions in the eastern part of the state, the population is rare in Bhandara, Gondia, Chandrapur districts, while in Amravati, Akola, Washim, Yavatmal, Hingoli, Parbhani districts, the uncertainty of agricultural production and the stray caste population are high.
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3) Medium-density regions: (301 to 450 population)
Agriculture is a major occupation and industrialization is progressing in these regions.
4) High density regions: (451 to 600 population)
These include Nagpur and Kolhapur districts. Nagpur is in the central part of the country and is the hub of traffic. While Kolhapur district is developed in agriculture and industrial production, population density is high there.
5) High density areas: (population over 601)
The population density of the cities of Mumbai City, Mumbai Suburbs, Thane and Pune is over 600 sq km.
Mumbai is a natural port, the capital of Maharashtra and the financial capital of the country. As well as the development of technology and transport in Thane, Pune districts, huge employment opportunities have been created. The population density is extremely high due to the migration of the population to these regions.
Migration is the process by which individuals or groups migrate from one place to another for short or long periods of time. People usually migrate due to natural disasters, business, war, migration, education, marriage, tourism etc.
In Maharashtra, there is a large number of migrations from the states to the big cities, and such migration from rural to rural areas in Maharashtra is mainly through the migration of farm laborers. Workers migrate from other areas to the irrigated area. Women migrate because of marriage. People from rural areas migrate to seek employment, education or medical facilities.
In areas where people migrate, there is a shortage of manpower, while in areas where people migrate, the density of the population increases and social services facilities are stressed.
G. Family size:
The general family in the state excludes the homeless and the families living in institutions.
Maharashtra has a household population of 2. 43% crore, which comprises 98.9% of the population.
The average size of ordinary households in the state is 4.5 to 4.7 respectively.
The average size of the average family in all India levels is 4.8, which is the same for Aja and Aj category.
H. Scheduled Castes Population
As per Census 2011, the population of Aja in the state is 1.33 crore (11.8% of the total population). The population growth rate for Aja population (from 2001 to 2011) is 34.3%.
The literacy rate among the population of Aja has increased from 71.9% in 2001 to 76% in 2011.
I. Scheduled Tribe Population:
As per Census 2011, the population of Aj category in the State is 1.05 crore (9.4% of the total population).
The population growth rate for Aj category (2001 to 2011) is 22.5%. The literacy rate among the AJ class population has increased from 55. 2 in 2001 to 65.7% in 2011.
Tribal people of Maharashtra population
People of ancient primitive tribes live in the hills and forests of Maharashtra. In general, they are known as tribals. They have a very important place in human society from the perspective of cultural traditions. Despite living in different natural environments, these people have preserved their culture and social order. Here are some of the major tribal characteristics of Maharashtra.
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In ancient times, the Bhils were the descendants of the proto-Australaid peoples from Central Asia. According to some anthropologists, the Bhil tribe is believed to be one of the Prakrit-Dravidian tribes in India. This tribe is found mainly in North Sahyadri mountain range and Satpuda mountain range in Maharashtra. These are the districts of Thane, Palghar, Nashik, Dhule, Nandurbar and Jalgaon. People of Bhil tribe hunt in the forests. Since the business has been around for thousands of years, the natural environment is closely related.
The Bhil tribe still live in the wild. They are striking and itchy by the body. They are wide nose, black, and their bodies are rocky. They have long hair like the Dravidian people. Bhil women are bright and colorful. Bhils are very confident. No cheating. They are very brave and brave.
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Gond is the largest and oldest tribal tribe in India. The existence of this tribe is found mainly in Chandrapur, Gadchiroli district in East Vidarbha. The tribe is believed to have originated from the intricate lineage system between the Dravidian and Indo-Aryan peoples.
Gonds have been very important in the political life of Maharashtra in the last few centuries. The land where the Gond people ruled is called Gondwana land. Gondaraj was once the ruler. Gond is a tribal tribe of honest, powerful, upright and fearless tribe.
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The physical characteristics of the people of this tribe are medium height, black color, flattened and smooth face, medium sized eyes, negro-like bushes, wide nose, thick black and curly hair.
In this tribe, marriages take place in the groom’s house. There are food, drinks and group dances at weddings. Beautiful women have freedom. There is no objection to their premarital relations. The Gondas are particularly well known for their gothul. In Gotul, sweet young men gather at night. It also combines their love affair and sexual relationships. They marry.
3. KatKari Maharashtra population
There is a tribe living in the vicinity of Sahyadri, known as Kathodi. Sahyadrit settled in the hills and high plateau areas of Raigad, Thane, Nashik, Pune. They live in a river, away from the village or on the hillside. So this is a true wilderness tribe.
There are 15 to 50 huts in a katwadi. His business is to hunt, to coal, to sell the pasture by collecting dried and dried timber, fishing in fresh water, working on the farm, etc. These people are skilled hunters who are skilled at archery.
Katakari is characteristically black, medium-height, wavy with black and spiky hair, with a straight and slightly forward forehead, a straight nose, wide mouth, short chin, slender but linear. He is very strong and tough, but he is sluggish. Women are tall and slim.
The men in this tribe wear the usual dress like bandi, waistcoat and head cut, while women wear short robes and robes. They love to wear glasses, beads, bangles and earrings.
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The language of Katakari is basically a dialect. Since this tribe has lived in Maharashtra for many centuries, it has taken a Marathi turn.
4. Korku Maharashtra population
This tribe is found in the Satpuda Mountains of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. Koru means man Korku means man. The Korku tribe is considered to be a branch of the human genus Cole aka Munda.
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The sack tree is very important in the wedding of Korku. Before marriage, Navdev and his parents go to the sack tree. The priests bind them to the tree with ropes. Then a splinter is sprinkled with blood, and seven rounds are taken around the tree and thus the marriage takes place.
5. Warli of Maharashtra population
The major settlements of this tribe are found in Maharashtra, Thane, Nashik and Palghar districts. The word Varud originated from the word Varudai – Waruli – Waruli. The villages of the dead are situated in groups of scattered huts. This group of settlements is called Pada. Agriculture is their main business. In the vicinity of the hut, fruit vegetables are planted in leafy vegetables, gold, aloe, maize, pumpkin and chilli.
The character of the Warli tribe is bright, big nose, pinksy brown eyes, cuticle flesh and medium height are some of the physical characteristics of Warley. Men put on a bracelet and jump and get dressed. The clothes are placed around the waist by 3 feet to the knees and put on a knot.
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